Climatic zones, on earth there are many because there are various factors that determine them. Wind and mountains, latitude, sea and ocean currents and so on and so forth. And man also puts himself there by settling, building and cultivating to influence climatic zones. It was therefore necessary to simplify and identify some of them that indicatively describe emblematic situations to refer to.
The climatic zones each indicate that belt of the Earth with a certain type of climate, there are temperate, tropical, polar and even subpolar climatic zones, and then the sub-categories. The climate in the climatic zones depends on the following factors: the latitude, on which the angle of inclination of the sun's rays hitting the earth depends, the altitude, the presence of reliefs, seas and currents, winds, industrial and agricultural human activities. And then the composition of the atmosphere that affects how the solar radiation are filtered.
The Earth and nature are too complicated to be captured with a - true - but le pattern climatic zones they give an impression of order in an ever-changing meteorology.
Climatic zones of the Earth
By combining the factors that define the climate, we obtain almost as if it were a mathematical formula, but in a much less precise way, the various terrestrial climatic zones. And there are so many. To limit the description and make it usable, it was decided to rely on the different irradiation conditions due to the inclination of the earth's axis, combined with the precession motion of the Earth, light and undulatory. Thus three are obtained climatic zones, made up of five distinct areas delimited by 4 parallels.
There tropical and equatorial zone it extends from the Tropic of Cancer to the Tropic of Capricorn and it is torrid: it is constantly hot, the nights last 12 hours, the sun's rays arrive perpendicular and "beat". As the degree of humidity varies, there are humid regions, the kingdom of rainforests, arid, with savannah and a little human life, and desert regions with zero vegetation except for oases.
Temperate climatic zones
This typology is present in two areas, the one between the Arctic Circle (Boreal) and the Tropic of Cancer and that between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle (Southern). In these areas the 4 seasons are well recognizable, the rays arrive on the Earth obliquely giving rise to various climatic sub-zones, with regimes from time to time of type Mediterranean, oceanic, mountain and continental.
On the Mediterranean we are between 10 ° C and 25 ° C, winters are short and mild and rainy, summers long and dry. In areas like this fruit trees and the Mediterranean scrub grow joyfully, man is happy to deal with breeding and agriculture. When the weather is oceanic, with mild winters and cool summers, and temperatures between 8 ° C and 15 ° C, it rains all year round so the landscape is green and conducive to pastures, cultivated fields and plant woods.
The climatic zones characterized by a regime mountain, where they dance between 15 ° C and -8 ° C, they have harsh winters, cool summers and strong diurnal temperature variations. The typical vegetation consists of chestnut and oak woods and coniferous forests, but where it is colder, rock pastures and glaciers reign. Usually they are not very populated areas, there are those who deal with pastures or tourism.
The Continental climate it can be cool or cold, in the first case the temperatures are between -6 ° C and 25 ° C, it rains frequently and there are coniferous and deciduous woods, and many men engaged in farming and agriculture. The cold continental climate, cold from -10 ° C up to 20 ° C, is suitable for conifers, oaks, beeches and birches, the population is less numerous in climatic zones like these and rye, oats and potatoes are grown.
Polar climatic zones
In this case, as expected, we have the North and South versions, corresponding to the two poles and with the Arctic Circle and the Antarctic Circle to delimit everything. The climate is obviously very harsh and there are perennial ice at all altitudes, we pass from the polar day, of six months, to the long polar night, also six months long.
There arctic area it is inhabited by populations that raise reindeer or fish, in winter it is -15 ° C in winter, there is an ice pack and some areas of land covered by a polar cap where, in the summer thaw, mosses and lichens sprout, plus to the south tundra and taiga. At the South pole, Antarctic area, there is a real continent made up of glacial flows but many animals survive.
Climatic zones in Italy
Italy is divided into six climatic zones labeled with letters from A to F: each municipality belongs to one of the climatic zones regardless of the region in which it is located, depending on Degrees Day. Called GG, it is a parameter that for each locality indicates the heat requirement necessary on average to maintain a comfortable climate in the home.
It is calculated considering a conventional annual heating period and adding up the daily differences between the ideal conventional temperature at home (20 ° C) and the average daily temperature outside the home. If the GG is low, no r is neededintense and prolonged heating, vice versa if it is high. It starts from zone A, the alpine zone, with GG not exceeding 600, then there is B, Padana, with GG from 600 to 900, followed by the Apennine C from 900 to 1,400, the northern Adriatic zone D with GG between 1,400 and 2,100. LA E is the Tyrrhenian area, with GG from 2,100 up to 3,000, if finally the GG is even greater we are in zone F, south-east and of the islands.
European climatic zones
Even in Europe we have different climatic zones, there are five specifically, due to the wide latitude of the continent. Let's start from subarctic or high mountain climate, typical of northern Europe, with low rainfall, snow, and temperatures above zero only in summer: also due to cold winds, vegetation in climatic areas like this is scarce.
The Continental climate it is the prevailing one at European level, characterized by a short and sultry summer that alternates with cold and snowy winter. When the climate is Atlantic, as in Great Britain, Ireland and also Sweden, Norway and Portugal, as well as on the coasts of other countries, it rains a lot and the temperatures remain mild.
When the climate is mountainous, in the mountain ranges located in central-southern Europe, we find cold and snowy winters and cool and rainy summers. Our climate is in the Mediterranean climatic zone where we find all the countries that overlook our sea and enjoy short and mild winters and long and hot summers. It rains very little in spring and autumn, between May and September there is danger of drought.
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